Some grammar sources classify English into 8 parts of speech. Some sources say that there are 9. Here at ESLBlock.com, we explain the most recent categorization system as 10 parts of speech.
We can classify English words into ten types referred to as “parts of speech” or “word classes.” It’s crucial to know the different parts of speech. This allows you to analyze sentences and comprehend the meaning behind them. It also assists you in making excellent sentences.
Every word is part of speech. The phrase “part of speech” refers to the function a word plays in sentences. Like every other show or workplace with an ensemble cast, the roles were designed to be interconnected.
Parts of speech are classifications of words that perform similar roles in grammatical terms in phrase and sentence structure. So what exactly are various parts of speech? And what do you know about which words are related to different grammar categories? This article will describe the various parts of speech and show you how to recognize them and alter and utilize them in both complicated and straightforward sentences.
Within the English language, there are many parts of speech that are arranged to create sentences. Without these elements, the language wouldn’t be able to work.
Learn more about the different parts of speech, the words we use each day, and how to convey ideas effectively.
What Are Parts Of Speech?
The parts of speech comprise categories determined by the role they play in sentence structure. The word categories are arranged according to their function in grammatical terms and the meanings they create and communicate.
Within the English language, there are about ten common speech parts. They include nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, articles, conjunctions, interjections, determiners, and pronouns.
Although the meanings of these categories will be explained in the following sections, remember that these words are grammatically relevant or perform as grammatical elements in the speech, including sentence structure and meaning.
Words and lexemes
In linguistics, we distinguish lexemes and words. Words are an everyday word that is used by all of us every day. For example, every one of us will be able to agree on the number of words that appear in this sentence:
Amelia ran 9 kilometers yesterday, but she’s only running 3 today. (11 words)
When we examine the situation more closely at the details, we can see that ran and running are derived from run, which is the exact verb. Both words are variations from the same word. The run is lexeme which is a simple version of the term.
Open and Closed Word Classes
Open Classes: Open classes allow new members through borrowing (for example, the noun cafe) and derivation (for example, the adjective bounteous from the noun bounty). Open classes of words include:
Closed Classes: Closed classes of words do not allow new members and usually involve grammatical rather than lexical terms. Closed classes of words include:
Explanation of Different Parts of Speech (with Examples)
This chapter will look a bit more closely at the various components of speech like the verb, noun, and adjective. This will enable us to understand better how sentences are constructed and how all the parts of speech function.
1. Nouns (n.)
We can define a noun as, a noun which is a word that names person, place, object or concept. In general, anything that names a “thing” is a noun regardless of whether it’s a basketball court in San Francisco, Cleopatra, or self-preservation. There are many different subcategories of nouns, such as the proper noun collective noun, the possessive noun, and the common noun. Each has a distinct function, so let’s examine this in greater detail.
Ball, Jeffrey, cat, Korea, pen, mother, New Year, Lahore, dog, cat, elephant, bat, garden, school, Eid, work, music, town, America, Manila, teacher, Madinah, farmer, Bob, Sean, feet, Michael, police officer, air, France, coffee, football, danger, classroom, happiness wedding, Christmas.
Noun example sentences
- I live in America.
- Amelia is my sister.
- I love to play with my cat.
- The name of this dog is Jake.
- Atlantic Ocean is very beautiful.
- The capital of England is London.
- Albert Einstein was born in Germany.
- Cara and Bobby are close friends.
- Every Sunday John visits the church.
- I love to collect storybooks.
Common nouns are the simplest form of nouns. Common nouns are words of naming that are commonly used by objects, people, and animals. Common nouns don’t refer to any specific individual, location or thing. They are general terms. Therefore, they cannot be capitalized unless they are used to begin an entire sentence. For instance, girl, boy doctor, town, city dog, car and others.
- Kristen has a cup.
- Do you want a pen?
Names of people or places such as your name, your sister’s name, your mother parents.
- My name is David.
- My mother’s name is Sofie.
- I visited California.
Collective nouns are used to name a group of persons, places, animals or things. For example, a flock of sheep, a swarm of bees and a team of players.
- A shoal of fish.
- A herd of cattle.
- An army of soldiers.
A possessive noun refers to a word that identifies who or what owns something. We can add an apostrophe (‘s) to make most singular nouns possessive form.
- This is William’s pen. (Means – The pen belongs to William)
- Sophia’s homework was checked.
2. Verbs (vb.)
Verbs are words used to describe what happens (action) in the sentence. They can also show a sentence subject’s state of being (is, was). Verbs alter their form depending on the tense (present or past) and the distinction between count (singular and plural).
run, wash, sing, congratulate, dance, believe, seem to, finish, eat, complete, drink, play, become, help.
Verb example sentences
- Amelia is playing the football.
- We bought a new dog.
- The roof on the shop leaks.
- The lightning struck the tower.
- Will you help me with the kitchen?
- She rode her new bike around the block for an hour.
- The dog sat by the gate.
- I’ll play this song on my guitar.
- She thought about her stupid mistake in the exam.
- John visited his friend for a while and then went market.
Kinds of Verbs
A verb is a necessary part of a sentence and is known as the soul of the English language. Following are the various kinds of verbs.
- Regular Verb
- Irregular Verb
- Linking Verb
- Transitive Verb
- Finite Verb
- Infinitive Verb
- Intransitive Verb
3. Pronoun (pron.)
A pronoun is a word used in place of a noun. The noun substituted by a pronoun can be known as an antecedent. For example, in the sentence, I love my bunny because he is a good boy, the word he in the sentence is a pronoun that replaces the noun bunny.
In grammatical terms, pronouns behave like nouns. They can be used for subjects and objects; They refer to persons, places, and things; they can be plural or singular.
I, me, you, yours, he, himself, she herself, it, its, we, they, us, them, who, what, this, that, anyone, nobody, something.
Pronoun Example Sentences
- We looked for Sofia at her house, but she wasn’t there.
- I took my bike to the mechanic to get it repaired.
- This is the best evening ever!
- Someone donated $1500 to our charity.
- Kristen thinks that mayonnaise goes well with anything.
- Oliver isn’t at work this week; he‘s gone on holiday.
- Tell her the truth.
- Isabella tried it herself.
- They can’t blame him for everything.
- The man who called yesterday wants to buy the car.
Kinds of Pronouns
There are many kinds of pronouns we can use in our writing and speech. First, we will briefly discuss the various types. Then, if you’d like to look into each of them in greater depth, we’ve provided comprehensive information on each of the pronouns.
- Personal pronouns
- Possessive pronouns
- Relative pronouns
- Reflexive pronouns
- Indefinite pronouns
- Interrogative pronouns
- Demonstrative pronouns
- Reciprocal pronouns
- Intensive pronouns
4. Adjective (adj.)
The word is used to enhance the meaning of a noun and pronoun, more simply we use adjectives to add something to the meaning of the noun. For example, we understand the meaning of the word “boy”. But, boy+ intelligent is a different thing from boy + stupid. In the same way, boy + beautiful refers to something different than boy + ugly. The word “boy” is used to mean exactly the same thing in every sentence. However, the adjectives, intelligent, stupid, beautiful and ugly define the meaning of the word “girl” completely different.
Adorable, adventurous, aggressive, agreeable, alert, alive, amused, angry, annoyed, annoying, anxious, fast, cool, dry, blue, smart, short, heavy, hot, green, red, interesting, large.
Adjective Example Sentences
- I have a tall dog. (The word ‘tall’ is describing an attribute of the dog)
- She is smart. (The word ‘smart’ is providing information about the subject)
- The hungry ducks are crying.
- I saw a flying crow.
- This is a white bag.
- The large squirrel ran up the wall.
- My sister has long hair.
- The sky became dark.
- Her story seemed interesting.
- Furry cats may overheat in the summertime.
Kinds of Adjective
Here, we will briefly look at 13 different types of adjectives. If you’d like to know more about each adjective more in-depth You can go through our entire guide to the various kinds of adjectives!
- Possessive adjectives
- Comparative adjectives
- Superlative adjectives
- Descriptive adjectives
- Predicate adjectives
- Compound adjectives
- Demonstrative adjectives
- Proper adjectives
- Participial adjectives
- Limiting adjectives
- Interrogative adjectives
- Distributive adjective
- Attributive adjectives
5. Adverb (adv.)
An adverb is used to describe or further explain an adjective, verb, or another adverb but never a noun. They can add more information to a sentence making it more transparent and more accessible for the listener to imagine what is being described in detail. Adverbs will often end in the letters -ly, but there are exceptions to this rule, such as the words very and never.
Adverbs specify when, where, how, and why something happened and to what extent or how often.
Softly, neatly, lazily, very, badly, fully, often, only, nearly, hungrily, hopefully, softly, silently, well, really, sometimes
Adjective Example Sentences
- Amelia speaks loudly. (How does Amelia speak?)
- Afterwards he smoked a cigarette. (When did he smoke?)
- Mia lives locally. (Where does Mia live?)
- This is an extremely attractive girl.
- They have a very large cat.
- Tom boat did not run badly.
- William is very fat.
- Fortunately, Sofia recorded William’s win.
- Her car drives quickly.
- The baby is crying loudly.
6. Preposition (prep.)
Prepositions are a common word. Seven of them are among the top 20 most used words in English. Prepositions connect a word with other parts of the sentence. They explain the connection is, e.g. in time or space.
A preposition is used in English to establish a relationship between two phrases or words. Words like in, prior, to, on at, in between, before, on, at etc., are examples of prepositions.
A preposition is a word put before a noun or pronoun to create an expression that modifies another phrase. Thus, a preposition is always an element of a prepositional phrase. The prepositional phrase usually is used as an adjective or an adjective, or an adverb.
About, above, across, after, against, along, among, at, before, by, for, from, in, inside, into, of, on, onto, over, to, up, with.
Preposition Example Sentences
- The dog is sitting on the table.
- I am going to the salon after my lunch.
- We are running in the gym.
- The moon is above the clouds.
- I read that news in the newspapers.
- Cat was hiding under the table.
- She drove over the bridge.
- She lost her bracelet at the beach.
- The grammar book belongs to David.
- We were sitting by the tree.
7. Conjunction (conj.)
Conjunctions are words used to connect words, phrases, and clauses. There are many different conjunctions within the English language. However, some commonly used ones include and or, but for, if, and when.
Whether, and, however, still, or, so, after, yet, since, before, either, neither, because, unless, as, because, but, for, just as, nor, not only.
Conjunction Example Sentences
- My girlfriend and I are going on a date.
- Sofia will go to the shop but not before she has had something to eat.
- He was tired yet he still went to the gym.
- I tried to hit the thumb but hit my nail instead.
- I have two dogs and a goldfish.
- She’d like a bike for commuting to work.
- They can have apple ice cream or a brownie sundae.
- Neither the red dress nor the white one looks right on her.
- My husband always worked hard so we could afford the car we wanted.
- They can watch movie provided they disturb nobody.
Types of Conjunction
Many different kinds of conjunctions can perform various tasks within sentence structures. This includes:
- Coordinating conjunctions
- Correlative conjunctions
- Subordinating conjunctions
- Conjunctive adverbs
8. Interjection (interj.)
An interjection is defined as “An interjection or exclamation is a word used to express a particular emotion or sentiment on the part of the speaker.”
Oh!, Wow!, oops!, Ahem!, aha!, gosh!, aw!, great!, hey!, hi!, hooray!, yeah!, phew!, eh!, ouch!, hi!, well!
Interjection Example Sentences
- Good! now we can celebrate the wedding party.
- Wow! did they see how big that elephant was?
- Hooray! Amelia passed her exam!
- Oh, what’s an apple.
- Hey! get out of the room!
- Yes! I can do it.
- Congrats! You finally got your bachelor’s degree.
- Phew! that was a close call.
- No! I run so short.
- Well, what did you say?
Types of Interjection
You can use a verb, a noun, or an adverb as an interjection.
- Noun as an interjection
- Verb as an interjection
- Adverb as an interjection
9-10. Articles and Determiners
Determiners and articles act as adjectives by changing nouns, but they differ from adjectives because they are required for sentences to have the correct syntax.
Articles and determiners are two parts of speech used alongside noun phrases or nouns to help clarify their meaning.
Certain grammars of the past have considered the article as a distinct component of speech. However, modern grammars generally include articles in the class that are determiners that define or quantify a word.
Articles and Determiner Examples
- Numbers: three, seven, ninety-nine
- Distributives: neither, either, half, both, every, each, all
- Pronouns and possessive determiners: her, his, its, your, their, my, our
- Difference determiners: another, the other, other
- Demonstratives: this, that, these, those
- Quantifiers: a few, a little, much, many, some, most, any, enough
- Pre-determiners: such, quite, rather, what.
- Articles: the, a, an
Articles and Determiner Example Sentences
- All nations want to be free.
- I saw an accident of a bike.
- These are dogs.
- My family is a very happy.
- They have a lot of people on Pinterest.
- You have five days left to complete that project.
- Sorry, I’m too busy, I have other job to do.
- Amelia saw a star last night.
- William saw the moon last night.
- Sophia has a beautiful doll.
Parts of Speech in English – Printable Infographic
In the English language, there are eight parts of speech. Each one has its use. Without them, we’d not be able to form coherent sentences, so it is essential to be aware of the different functions each one serves. In these infographics, we’ll examine each of the different speech parts and what they are utilized for, as well as some illustrations of ways they are used in the context of a sentence.
Infographics are a fantastic way of conveying lots of details in a brief period in a way that’s exciting. Parts of speech infographics are a great way to help students and teachers communicate their thoughts and show how they learn—download parts of speech infographics right now.
Parts of Speech in English – Printable Flashcards
Parts of speech in English are often tricky to recognize in the context of a sentence. This flashcard set can help you understand the meaning of what a part of speech is and how the various parts of speech function in performing their tasks in a sentence. This set of flashcards can aid you in identifying and describing the eight parts of speech, as well as the roles they perform in sentences.
Parts of Speech in English MCQs Test
Make use of these parts of the speech quiz to test your English Grammar skills or your students. Answers are listed at the end of the page. Have fun!
You can take this grammar test online as well as print it on paper. It will test what you have learned from the Parts of Speech page.